cabaret A small tray, usually porcelain, with matching sugar bowl, set of cups, milk jug and tea pot. A breakfast set is called dejeuner. A set for one-person solitaire and a set for two tete-a-tete.
cabinet A piece of furniture incorporating drawer and cupboard space designed so that small objects can be displayed and stored.
cabinet-ware Porcelain, often cups, saucers, plates that were made for display rather than to be used. A typical example is soft paste porcelain made at Chelsea in the 1740's.
Cabriole A profile in furniture which is curvaceous and allegedly inspired by the shape of a wild goats hind legs. Normally associated with legs on tables and chairs and they form a shallow 's' curve with a broad hip and knee or shoulder and taper to a slim concave leg below. This style was so popular that towards the end of the 17th - mid 18th Century the period is known as the Cabriole Leg Period.
cache-pot An ornamental container for a pot holding a growing plant, normally without a drainage hole.
cachou box A 19th Century silver or gold box to hold cachous-pills for sweetening breath. These boxes were made in Britain they are very small 25-50 mm in length and they would have a hinged lid, occasionally they would have a ring attached as this enabled it to be hung from a Chatelaine. They remained popular until C. 1910, and were usually decorated with enamelling or chasing.
cadogan A teapot, peach shaped and lidless which is held upside down and would be filled from the base. There is a tube leading from the base to ensure that the contents wouldn't spill when it is turned upright. A Chinese wine pot, that was brought to Britain by Hon Mrs Cadogan is said to have inspired the first examples that were produced at Rockingham in the late 18th Century. Meissen, Copeland, Davenport and other Staffordshire potteries soon followed.
Café, John (fl.1740 - 1757) A Silversmith, London based who is well known for his candlesticks and snuffer trays. He was succeeded by his brother William, who continued the prolific production of candlesticks until 1772.
cage cup A cast or blown, thick walled glass blank carved in relief and then undercut, leaving the decoration in the form of a net or cage still attached to the main body of the vessel. This form could also be known as a diatreta, which takes its name from diatretarii, the Roman glass decorators who originated it.
cagework The term used for a decorative pierced or chased silver mount that encloses an inner, plain section of an object. The cagework technique is likely to have originated from Germany, and was used a lot in Britain on late17th Century tankards, two handled cups and beakers.
A cagework boxIs a snuff box that comprises of plaques of various materials, for example ivory or agate set in a pierced metal frame.
Caillouté Porcelain decoration, of a lacy network of oval and circle outlines, usually painted in gold. The word is French for 'pebbled.' The design was introduced at Sèvres in the mid 18th Century, it is set against a dark blue background, and can also be seen in Worcester, Derby and Swansea ware.
cairngorm Yellowish-brown to smoky yellow quartz. The most significant and important stone in Scottish jewellery. The stones were originally found in the Cairngorm mountains, and have been much simulated in glass and are now imitated by heat treatment to Brazilian amethysts.
calamander A light brown ebony, mottled and striped with black popular for Regency veneers and banding.
Calcite glass Developed by Frederick Carder Circa 1915 in the USA, a creamy white art glass. Its translucency achieved by adding bone ash to the molten glass, it was made generally for lampshades, often used with Aurene glass to make cameo glass.
calendar clock A clock with separate indications on the main dial, or with extra dials for the phase of the moon, the day, the month and more unusually the year. Often Calendar details appeared on public clocks from the 14th Century and on domestic clocks from the 16th Century.
calibre The diameter of a bore, which is the inner surface of a gun barrel.
calico Originally imported from Calicut, a port in south-west India, throughout the 17th and 18th Centuries it is a plain weave cotton cloth, only later was it manufactured in Britain. It was used with printed or painted patterns for soft furnishings especially during the 18th and 19th Centuries.
calotype The world's first negative-positive technique of photography, pioneered by British scientist William Henry Fox Talbot (1800 - 1870) in 1841. The calotype took over from the daguerreotype.
cameo A Gemstone, hardstone or shell, cut to reveal a design in relief. Cameos were originally made from gemstones with different coloured layers to provide a contrasting background. Widespread in the Roman era and revived during the Italian renaissance and neoclassical period. Shell cameos were carved with Classical style portraits and mythological scenes, in Naples and Rome in the 19th Century and exported to Britain to be used as seals and jewellery.
cameo glass Glassware that was made up of two or more layers of glass in contrasting colours where each part of the outer surface is carved by hand or etched away with acid to leave a cameo effect design in relief.
camera obscura A device used in particular by 17th and 18th Century artists to produce accurate paintings and drawings, it's a dark box with a small opening or lens through which the image of an object is projected and focused onto a facing surface.
campaign furniture 18th and 19th Century portable furniture, to include writing chests, washstands, beds, chairs and chest of drawers, primarily for military use. The furniture is normally made of mahogany or teak with removable feet and brass fittings. Chests would be made in two halves and other pieces would come apart by unscrewing, so that they could be stacked for travelling.
campana Inverted bell shape seen in ceramics and metal ware since classical times and was very popular in the early 19th Century.
canapé The French term that is used for a settee that would have been used from the late 17th Century. It is upholstered with some of the wooden structure, such as a top rail or apron, left exposed.
cancellation mark The means or method of making ceramics that are substandard or part of a discontinued range, by painting or scratching one or two strokes over the original factory mark.
candelabrum Candlestick with a branched form, often made as a pair and has been used in Europe since the Middle Ages.
candle slide A small wooden support for a candlestick, can be sometimes found on 18th Century desks, tables and bureau's. It would slide into a recess when it was not being used.
candlestick An object or utensil used for holding a single candle, and used in Europe from the 10th Century or possibly earlier.
cane Either woven strips from the stems of a group of palms known as Rattans, which are used in furniture. Canework came to Europe from China via the Dutch East India Company trade in the 17th Century. It became popular in Europe in the second half of the 17th Century.
Cane is a fairly cheap material, it is strong but light.
Cane can also be a stick of glass, sometimes multicoloured, made by arranging coloured lengths of rods of glass in a bundle, melting then rolling them in clear glass to form a cane.
caneware Very fine stoneware developed by Josiah Wedgwood from the 1770's it is cream to a light brown in colour and can sometimes be decorated with bright blue, green and red enamel colours.
canted An obliquely angled, chamfered or bevelled edge.
canteen A set of domestic tableware or cutlery that would fit into a wooden case with a hinged lid and would often have two or three drawers. There are normally 6 or 12 place settings. The first canteens were portable cases carrying the eating implements of 17th Century travellers and military officers.
Canterbury There are two types of canterbury's; A music canterbury was designed in the late 18th Century and is a wooden stand divided by rails into sections for storing music sheets. A supper canterbury is a low wooden trolley used in the 18th Century for cutlery and plates.
cantilever chair A chair made using the cantilever principle, whereby the weight is supported only at one end. Mart Stam's 1920 tubular steel chair cane the appearance that the seat was floating in mid air, and at that time people were afraid to sit on it.
Canton There are 3 definitions:
1) Chinese export porcelain decorated in Canton. Throughout Europe Canton usually applies to 19th Century Chinese porcelain decorated with panels of flowers and scenes with figures on a gilt and green scrolled ground.
2) Canton's enamelling workshops also produced enamel-painted copper known as Canton enamel.
3) In the USA the term is used to describe porcelain decorated with underglaze blue landscapes similar to the British Willow pattern which was exported from the Chinese port during the 18th and 19th Centuries.
capacity marks Marks, that can also be known as standard or excise marks they are found on measures used in public markets and taverns for the sale of both dry and wet goods, such as grain, wine or ale.
carat 1) The unit for measuring the weight of gemstones to include pearls and diamonds. In 1914 it was standardised as one fifth on a gram 200mg, equivalent to 3.086 grains.
2) The measure of the finest gold based on 24 units. A 22 carat gold piece is an alloy of 22 parts of pure gold and 2 parts another metal such as silver.
carbine Similar to a musket or rifle firearm, but with a shorter barrel and firing range and quite often carried by cavalry.
carboy A large bottle that was used for storing liquids such as acids or could also have been used for display purposes in pharmacies. The neck is narrow and with matching stopper, they were usually made of clear glass so that it was able to see the colour of the liquid inside.
carcass The main body of a piece of furniture before the drawers and doors have been added.
Carder, Frederick (1864 - 1963) A British glass designer who (1880 - 1903) worked for Stevens & Williams. He moved to the USA where he co-founded Steuben Glassworks. He was inspired by the Art Nouveau movement and he experimented with coloured glass, and different finishes.
Cardew, Michael (1901 - 1982) A major figure in 20th Century British art pottery, he trained with Bernard Leach at St Ives in the 1920's. He started his own pottery at Winchcombe, Gloucestershire, where he made everyday items such as cider jugs and bowls in slip-decorated, glazed earthenware. He followed English pottery traditions.
card table A table used for playing cards and semicircular or rectangular in shape introduced in the 17th Century. Sometimes there would be a small drawer or wells which contained the counters.
carillon A group of bells that rung either manually or mechanically. Mechanical carillons have been used in public and domestic clocks since the 14th Century to strike the hours or play tunes as in for example musical clocks.
Carlton House desk The name comes from the original design desk that was made for the Prince of Wales for his London residence, Carlton House and the writing table has a low superstructure and drawers at the back and at the sides of the writing space.
Carlton ware Earthenware and porcelain that was produced from Circa 1890 at Carlton works, Staffordshire, which traded as Wiltshaw & Robinson. The pottery was well known for producing Art Deco ornamental ware for example porcelain vases with enamelled and gilded decoration and lustre wall masks.
carnet de bal Ivory leaves that are in a decorative case and the names of dancing partners were inscribed in pencil in the 18th and 19th Centuries.
carnival glass Produced mainly in the USA, Circa 1908 - 1924, it's a cheap glass, and was meant to be given out as prizes at carnivals and fairs.
Carolean A style of furniture that would have been made during the reign of King Charles I in Britain from 1625 -1649.
carriage clock The first portable clock, made on mass, a development from coach watches. They were first introduced by French clock maker Abraham-Louis Breguet Circa 1796.
carte à figure A map that was decorative often with an ornamental border, as well as informative, there would have been pictures of local views or towns, popular in the 17th Century.
carte-de-visite An idea developed by French photographer Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri in1854, where by a portrait photograph would be mounted on a small piece of card with the photographers credit on the back. Disdéri used a special camera that contained a number of lenses so that several poses could be achieved on a single negative.
cartel clock A wall clock that is spring driven, often ornate with a Rococo style or Neoclassical style frame or case, produced in Germany, France, Austria and Italy Circa 1750 - 1900.
Cartier A French jewellery firm founded in Paris in 1847. Originally specialising in enamelled gold set with gemstones, it is most likely to be famous for it its Art Deco jewellery and watches. Introducing the very first wristwatch in 1904, with the well known round cornered square design that is still available today.
cartonnier Fitted with compartments to hold papers, a piece of furniture that can either be freestanding with a cupboard below and a clock on the top or an accessory for placing on a desk.
cartoon A full scale preparatory design either drawn or painted for a mosaic, painting or can be a tapestry. It is a small sketch, which then is enlarged to make a cartoon.
cartouche A detail or decorative or object suggestive of a sheet of paper with scrolled edges. In ceramics or silverware, it may take the form of an oval or shield with a decorative feature or inscription, and a scrolled frame, and in furniture a tablet shape with curled edges. Cartouche borders are seen on old maps and prints.
carver A skill of a woodcarver in furniture making, as opposed to that of a carpenter, cabinet maker or joiner. This craft got greater status from the late 17th Century until the later part of the 18th Century, when it became very highly specialised in particular for cabinet stands, candelabra, mirror frames and console tables, which may then have been gilded.
caryatids Sculptured female forms, taken from Classical Greek style, widely used as ornamental supports on furniture and chimney pieces from the late 16th Century onwards. The 19th Century male equivalents are known as atlantes.
cased glass This is glassware that has two or more layers that are in different colours. Firstly the outer casting is blown into a cup shape, a second layer is then blown into it and the two are then reheated so that they fuse together. This process is repeated if more castings are required. The outer layer can then be engraved or cut to reveal the contrasting layer beneath.
case furniture This term is used for furniture that has pieces and is intended to contain something, for example a cupboard, cabinet, bookcase and clothes presses.
cassolette There are 2 definitions:
1) A glass or ceramic vase, usually one of a pair, with a reversible lid. The inverted lid serves as a candleholder.
2) An ornate, late 18th Century pastille burner like a small brazier on a stand and made of bronze or gilt metal.
Castellani, Fortunato Pio (1793 - 1865) An Italian antique dealer, goldsmith and jeweller based in Rome. He imitated Etruscan and Roman jewellery and reproduced the ancient technique of making granulated gold. He also produced jewellery with filigree decoration and miniature mosaic work. His sons continued running this family business and their work became popular in Britain, where it has been copied. The Castellani mark is a monogram of interlaced Cs.
caster A container with a perforated lid used for sprinkling condiments such as sugar, pepper and nutmeg, usually in silver or pewter. Matched sets are known as cruet sets.
casting This is the process of forming metal, glass, or ceramic objects by pouring the molten material into a mould and letting it cool down and then harden. Metal items may be sand-cast in which a mould shape is pressed into densely packed quartz and sand contained in an iron frame.
cast iron Used ever since the Middle Ages, but more so from the 18th Century and in particular from the Victorian times, it is an impure form of iron which has been cast and moulded it is brittle and cheaper than wrought iron.
Castleford ware A fine white stoneware with a slight translucency, made at Castleford near Leeds Circa 1800 -1820. It is of a smooth texture very similar to that of Parian ware with a low relief decoration. The most common articles were jugs and teapots, often with distinctive blue and enamel trimmings.
cat's eye This is the general term used for several varieties of gemstones which when viewed in a particular light and direction display a streak, linked to a cat's eye. The effect is a result of a fibrous inclusion, such as asbestos, naturally occurring within the gem.
caudle cup A small, covered, one or two handled cup with a saucer used for caudle, a spiced gruel of eggs, bread or oatmeal and wine or ale. Usually intended for invalids or nursing mothers, the cups were made of silver or pottery, in the late 17th Century and early 18th Century.
Caughley A Shropshire pottery founded Circa 1750 and well known for its soft paste porcelain, called Salopian ware, produced from 1772. Caughley was noted for the excellence of its potting techniques rather than for the originality of its design. It openly copied shapes and designs of articles produced at Worcester and sometimes it even reproduced Worchester's crescent mark. In the late 1780's and 1790's much of Caughley's work produced was decorated in bright enamels with gilding by the Worchester outside decorator Robert Chamberlain. The pottery closed in Circa 1812 and business was transferred to Coalport.
cauliflower ware Creamware pottery introduced by Josiah Wedgwood and Thomas Whieldon in the 1750's. Teaware, lidded bowls, tureens and punch pots were made in the form of a cauliflower. Later the idea extended to melons, pineapples and maize and was then copied at other potteries and produced in porcelain at Chelsea and Worcester.
cauling The name of a way of flattening a veneer onto a carcass and removing excess glue. The caul, a heated piece of wood, is clamped over the surface. The heat melts the glue coating on the carcass enabling the veneer to stick; the clamps are tightened, squeezing out any excess glue.
cavetto A type of moulding, a style of carving in wood and applied to furniture or to frame wall panels.
cedar A light reddish-brown aromatic timber from North America and the West Indies. Often used from the 18th Century by cabinet makers for the lining of drawers, chests and boxes, because it has a strong aroma and insect repellent qualities.
celadon A European term for Chinese Stoneware, which was initially developed during the Song Dynasty, with a translucent green glaze, and generally applied to any similar green-glaze. The shade is dependant upon the iron-oxide content.
cellaret A term introduced in the 18th Century for wine coolers and wine cisterns. It is also used for trays or compartments fitted into a drawer or sideboard, for holding bottles of wine and spirits.
Cellini jug A heavy, ornate jug, moulded with masks, strapwork and caryatids. This style is typical of that employed by the Renaissance goldsmith and sculptor Benvenuto Cellini.
Celtic Style The decorative style of the Celts, people who were originally from the western half of central Europe and then spread into Spain, Italy, and the British Isles Circa 250BC. Celtic motifs, with their curvaceous line patterns and stylised animal and human forms, were absorbed into English and Irish art, and were revived at the end of the 19th Century by Art Nouveau artists, and particularly the Glasgow school.
ceramics Clay based products which become hard by firing. This term, from the Greek keramas (clay), embraces all pottery including earthernware, stoneware, porcelain and bone china.
chafing dish Usually used for heating food and warming plates over a charcoal barrier or spirit lamp on the dinner table or sideboard. A vessel made of silver or other metals, the dish rests on a stand supported by legs, which afford space for a heating device. Chafing dishes were widely used from the 16th Century.
chaise longue A French term for an upholstered or cushioned chair with a whole or part back and a long seat
Chambers, Sir William (1726 - 1796) Furniture designer and Neoclassical architect, and along with Robert Adam joint architect to King George III. Chambers was the first British architect to visit China. His Chinoiserie work had an authentic look to it as a result of visiting China, which was more unusual during the 18th Century.
chamberstick A single candle holder with the sconce set into a saucer with a carrying handle attached, designed to be used within the bedroom. They were made from the 17th Century and sometimes had a snuffer attached.
chamfered Normally applying to stone and woodwork, it is an edge that is planed or cut at an angle.
champagne glass From the 1770's until around the mid 19th Century flute shaped glasses have been favoured for drinking champagne because they have a narrow mouth that retains the bubbles for longer. From Circa 1830, a wide shallow bowl of 4-6 fl oz capacity was popular. It is uncertain whether special glasses were reserved before 1770.
champagne tap A tap for dispensing champagne from a bottle without removing the cork. It is similar in shape to a corkscrew, and is a pointed tube with a spout and a spigot on one end. With the spigot closed, the champagne retains its bubbles. The taps were made from the late 19th Century and usually made of silver.
Chang ware A range of Art pottery developed by the Doulton factory during the early 20th Century. Typical Chang has a thick, glutinous glaze in shades of red and grey. The glaze, applied has three layers and has a vivid crackle. Named as to reflect the Chinese inspiration.
Chantilly - A soft-paste porcelain factory on the Prince de CondÈ's estate near Paris, c. 1725-89. Early Chantilly porcelain has a distinctive white tin glaze and often KAKIEMON-style decoration. After 1740, a lead glaze was used and decoration was mainly naturalistic, featuring birds and flowers, including the Chantilly sprig - a cornflower with two leaves, and two sprays of forget me-not flowers. The Chantilly lacemaking industry began in the late 17thC. It is particularly famed for its delicate handmade bobbin lace of the 19thC. This is usually a black silk lace with the pattern outlined in a thicker strand of silk.
chapter ring - Ring on the dial of a clock marked with the time divisions.
char dish - Flat-bottomed pot used from the 17th to 19th centuries for serving potted char (a relative of the trout) and often decorated on the outside with painted fish. The pots are about 1 in (25 mm) deep and 6-10 in (15-25 cm) across, and found in DELFTWARE and CREAMWARE.
character doll - Term used from c. 1890 for a doll with a distinctive, naturalistic expression, or with features modelled on those of a real child or famous person. A portrait doll is a French-made character doll and was popular from the 1850s
charger - Large circular or oval plate used for serving meat or for hanging as a wall decoration. The word is probably derived from the French charger, 'to fill'.
chasing - Any method of decorating silver and other metalware in which the metal is repositioned, rather than removed by chiselling or carving. embossing and repousse are both forms of chasing. Bold, high-relief patterns are embossed; finer detail is added by the repoussÈ technique. Flat-chasing is also worked from the front using hammers and punches, resulting in very shallow, low-relief patterns similar in effect to engraving.
chatelaine - Ornamental clasp or chain with a hook from which items such as keys, watches, seals and trinkets were hung. Chatelaines were worn at the waist, mainly by women, from the 17thC; they became less fashionable from c. 1830, but made a comeback c.1890-1910. They were made in various metals and often ornamented with enamelling, beading and tassels
Chawner, Henry - (1764-1851) London silversmith who worked with his brother, William, and was known as a spoon-maker. He was the son of a silversmith, Thomas Chawner, and in 1796 established a partnership with the emes family, producing fine-quality silverware.
Chelsea - With Bow, one of the earliest porcelain factories in Britain, founded mid to late 1740s. Chelsea was the only 18thC English factory producing exclusively for the luxury porcelain market. Minor offshoots, including the so-called 'Girl in a Swing' workshop, an elusive establishment named after its most famous figure subject, obscure the early years of production. However, the following periods, named after the factory marks used at the time, are generally agreed.
chenille - 1A soft, tufted cord of silk, cotton or woollen yarn used in embroidery or for fringing fabrics. 2 Any fabric made of chenille cord and, more generally, any of various imitation velvets produced from the 19thC. These include Chenille Axminsters, which are large, velvet-like carpets made using a two-loom weaving process at the axminster carpet factory.
chequerwork - A form of decoration on furniture in which alternating squares or rectangles of contrasting colours or textures imitate the pattern of a chess or chequerboard. Chequerwork was used extensively as an inlaid decoration in the 16th and 17th centuries.
cherry - The most popular fruitwood for furniture-making as it is hard and even-textured, with a superficial resemblance to mahogany, and polishes to a good finish. The cut wood of the British species varies in colour from pinkish-yellow to red-brown. Cherry was used particularly on the turned members of country-made chairs and tables in the 17th and 18th centuries, and by artist-craftsmen at the end of the 19th and in the early 20th century.
chest of drawers - Storage chest fitted with drawers which began to supersede the panelled chest or coffer in the 17thC. See commode, tallboy.
chesterfield - Victorian design of well-padded, over-stuffed sofa, often buttoned, and with back and arms of the same height.
chestnut - Horse chestnut is a native European species which produces a pale yellowish wood sometimes with a hint of pink. It has a close, even grain and has been used over the centuries for drawer linings, turned work, carving and inlaid decoration, but it lacks durability. Sweet chestnut is light reddish-brown, sometimes used as a substitute for oak in panelling, but rarely seen in case furniture.
cheval mirror - Long, floor-standing, framed mirror held between two uprights so that the angle can be adjusted. Cheval mirrors were made from c. 1750 and are also known as horse dressing glasses (cheval is French for horse).
cheveret - Small 18thC English writing desk, with slender, tapering legs and a set of small drawers and pigeonholes on top. It is sometimes known as a lady's cabinet.
chiffonie - r French term for a tall chest of drawers, made in Britain from the 1750s. The term came to include small sideboards or side cabinets with a cupboard below, buffets and side tables.
chimera - Decorative motif, seen in the 18th and 19th centuries, which originated in Classical mythology. It combines the features of a winged goat or lion with a serpent's tail.
china - Unspecific(and therefore to be discouraged term for ceramics. See BONE CHINA
china cabinet - A glass-fronted display cabinet for porcelain or cabinet-ware, introduced in the late 17thC when it was fashionable to collect chinese export porcelain.
china clay - A white clay virtually free of impurities such as iron, also known as kaolin. It is used in ceramics for its qualities of strength and whiteness, and is an essential ingredient of porcelain. The Chinese refer to the porcelain formula metaphorically as 'bones and flesh', china stone being the bone, china clay the flesh.
china stone - Feldspathic rock, also known as china rock, which is the essential fusing agent in hard-paste porcelain. When fired at a high temperature, the pulverised rock melts to a glassy paste (vitrifies) and binds with china clay to give true porcelain its special strength and impermeability. It is also combined with lime and potash in a glaze that can be fused onto a permeable earthenware body in a single firing to make it waterproof. The Chinese equivalent of china stone is petuntse
china table - See tea table.
Chinese export porcelain - Chinese porcelain products imported into Europe from the 16thC, and reaching a peak in the 17th and 18th centuries. Technically superior to European ceramics until the 18thC, Chinese porcelain was in great demand, and had a profound influence on European manufacturers who tried to capture its quality and decorative effects. The holds of East India trading vessels, especially from Holland and Britain, might be filled with flint for use in Chinese porcelain manufacture on the outward journey, and with china on the way back. The china was stacked beneath the principal cargoes of tea and silk (which had to be stored above the waterline), providing valuable ballast on the return journey. Most of the wares were of fairly ordinary quality, but there was a thriving private 'super cargo' trade in higher quality porcelain often specially commissioned by the Western aristocracy.
Chinese reign marks - See reign
chinkhvbori - Japanese lacquer technique, which originated in China. Stylised geometrical or floral diaper (see decorative motifs) patterns are engraved into a lacquer base and then filled with gold powder, foil, or coloured lacquers.
Chinnery, George (1774 - 1852) - George Chinnery was born in London in 1774. After training in England, he moved to Dublin where he became famous for his portraits and miniatures. He left for India in 1802 when he ran into debt, and he settled there for the next twenty-three years. In 1825 Chinnery set foot in Macao, China where he spent the next 27 years. His frenzied sketching of the streets and alleyways of Macao became legendary. Chinneryís prolific and brisk sketches of street scenes have been much proclaimed and praised. He mentored Lam Qua, who eventually became a renowned medical portrait painter. He travelled around the Pearl River Delta, between Macao and Canton (now Guangzhou) and was considered the most influential nineteenth century Western artist in the East.
The period between Chinneryís departure to the Orient and his death in Macao, coincided not only with the golden era of British Landscape Painting but also with times of great prosperity for Macao which saw its port transformed into one of the greatest trading stations of Asia. After a visit to Hong Kong when the British seized the city, he fell ill. He died in Macao in 1852. He lies buried in Macaoís Protestant Cemetery.
chinoiserie - Chinese-style ornamentation in the 17th and 18th centuries. Characteristics of the style include pagoda shapes, fretwork, motifs of mandarin figures, birds and river scenes, dragon finials and carved feet. From c. 1690, such decoration was applied to lacquered furniture, engraved on silverware and painted on ceramics, especially Dutch delft. Chinoiserie was back in fashion during the Rococo period of the mid- 18thC.
chintz - Cotton furnishing fabric in plain dyes or with printed patterns, and from the 1850s with a highly glazed finish. The word is from the Hindu chint (variegated) and at first applied to painted or printed calicoes imported from India in the 17thC.
chip carving - Medieval and 16thC wood decoration made by chipping out a pattern with a gouge or chisel. The pattern is usually contained within a circle, or roundel.
Chippendale, Thomas - (1718-79) Leading British cabinet-maker whose work was extremely influential during the early Georgian period and much imitated later.
chocolate pot - Covered vessel for preparing and serving hot chocolate, used since the second half of the 17thC. The silver chocolate pot has a hinged or detachable flap or finial in the lid though which a molinet, or rod, can be inserted to stir up the chocolate sediment. Molinets are usually made of wood with a knop or terminal in silver or ivory. A ceramic chocolate pot may be indistinguishable from a coffeepot.
chop tongs - See asparagus tongs.
choreutoscope - An optical toy introduced in 1866 consisting of a lantern with a window and shutter. Various different images in glass slides (see magic lantern) are passed across the window. Each image is viewed for a fraction of a second before the shutter falls and the next image is projected, giving the illusion of movement.
Chota-peg - Miniature jug used for individual servings of alcohol, dating from British colonial India at the end of the 19thC. Chota is the Hindi word for 'small measure'.
Christofle, Charles - (1805-63) Founder of L'OrfËvrerie Christofle, a large firm of goldsmiths, silversmiths and jewellers, established in Paris, 1829. In 1842, Christofle obtained the sole rights to produce electroplated wares in France from the British silversmiths, elkington. The firm also produced furniture and bronze furniture mounts.
chrome dyes - Chemical, colour-fast dyes for carpets and other fabrics, introduced in the early 20thC. Although they lack the subtlety and variety of natural vegetable and insect dyes, it can be difficult to distinguish between them.
chromium - A very bright and hard, silvery metal used in the production of stainless steel and as a decorative, corrosion-resistant plating material. Although discovered in 1798, its decorative potential was not realised until it began to be commercially available in 1925. modern movement designers such as le corbusier and breuer used chromium plate on the tubular-steel furniture that had such an impact on 1930s design.
chronograph - A precision stopwatch that has the facility to zero the seconds hand before restarting it. A split' seconds chronograph has two stop seconds hands, one above the other, each of which can be stopped independently
chronometer - A portable timepiece of great accuracy. In Britain the term is used specifically for one with a detent escapement, and in Switzerland for one with a lever escapement, which meets an official rating of timekeeping. Chronometers were originally developed in the 18thC for use at sea so that a ship's longitudinal position could be calculated accurately. Unlike pendulum-driven clocks, which are accurate only if stationary, chronometers aimed to be reliable even when subjected to temperature changes and the movement of a ship. The standard Greenwich mean time on the chronometer was compared with the ship's local time gauged by the position of the sun or the stars. Mapping survey chronometers are set in a box; marine chronometers are usually in a drum-shaped case pivoted in gimbals (two rings at right angles to each other) in a wooden box with a glass lid. Pocket chronometers were used both at sea and as pocket watches on land. All chronometers have a seconds hand; some show fractions of seconds. Most surviving examples are from the 19th and early 20th centuries.
chronoscope - A watch, also known as a wandering-hour watch, introduced c. 1675, on which the hour is displayed through a semicircular arc in the dial. The numeral, carried on a rotating disc, takes one hour to move around the semicircle and then disappears from view behind a decorated cover, to be replaced by the next hour at the other end. The scale for the minutes appears along the edge of the semicircle. Chronoscopes generally stopped being produced c.1730, but there are some 20thC revivals.
chryselephantine sculpture - The term for Ancient Greek wooden statues overlaid with gold and ivory, which in the 20thC refers to cast-bronze figures with ivory flesh parts, popular 1910-30.
Cipriani, Giovani Battista - (1727-85) Florentine engraver, painter and draughtsman, and founder-member of the Royal Academy of Arts in London (1768). Cipriani moved to Britain in 1753, and his greatest contribution to late 18thC neoclassical style lay in his paintings of nymphs and figures, some on satinwood furniture.
circumferentor - An early 17thC surveying instrument with a central compass surrounded by a brass circle marked with degrees, over which arch several sights to guide the eye. From 1758, English surveyors used it with a theodolite allowing them to measure both horizontal bearings and elevation at one time.
cire - French for 'waxed', referring to a hard, glossy finish given to fabrics, especially ribbons.
cire perdue - See lost wax.
cistern barometer - Barometer containing a straight glass tube, closed at the top end and with the bottom end immersed in a small chamber, or cistern, containing the mercury. The cistern cover is often decorated with bronze mounts and wooden carvings. See siphon barometer.
citrine - A variety of quartz, usually pale yellow although occasionally red-brown to red-orange. The main source of citrine is Brazil. It is often confused with yellow topaz.
clair de lune - French for 'moonlight', used to describe a porcelain glaze of milky lavender-blue. The effect was achieved by adding a touch of cobalt blue to a feldspathic glaze, and is most commonly seen on 18thC Chinese porcelain, sometimes combined with a crackle of black or brownish-red. It was also used at meissen without the crackle effect.
claret jug - 19thC wine jug, generally with a glass body held in decorative silver or silver-gilt mounts. A claret jug usually has a hinged lid with a thumbpiece which is often decorated with a figure.
Classical - See neoclassical.
claymore - Strictly, a two-handed Scottish sword introduced in the 16thC; the word is from the Gaelic claidheam-mor (great sword). Since the 18thC the term has also referred to a Scottish sword with a basket hilt.
clepsydra - See water clock.
Clichy - Firm of glass-makers founded c. 1837. It specialised in millefiori, producing fine and highly collectable paperweights, inkstands, vases and other domestic objects.
Cliff, Clarice - (1899-1972) Staffordshire pottery decorator famed for her distinctive, brightly coloured designs for A.J. wilkinson at its Newport Pottery. Cliff set up her own studio at Newport in 1927 and launched the hand-painted 'Bizarre' range the following year. She occasionally used designs by contemporary artists such as Paul Nash and Laura Knight on her pottery. By the end of her career, Cliff had produced around 2000 patterns and 500 new shapes.
clipping - The illegal practice of shearing metal from the edge of a precious-metal coin for profit - a universal practice dating from ancient times. Clipping was relatively easy to do with hammered coins, although it could be detected with careful and consistent weighing. The penalties were severe for those who were caught; sentences of death or limb amputation have been recorded. Clipping was largely stopped with the introduction of machine-made coins in Britain from 1662.
clobbering - The technique of overpainting an already existing design on ceramics. The Dutch, in particular, used clobbering to embellish Chinese blue and white export and meissen porcelain during the 18th and 19th centuries.
clock hands - Pointers on the dial of a clock which indicate the time. They are found in brass, silver and other metals, sometimes decorated with enamel. Early clocks have single hour hands in sturdy, arrowhead or spear shapes. The first pendulum clocks of the mid- 17thC have hand-fretted, filed and chased hands; at this time, too, minute hands became a standard feature. As the size of longcase clocks increased at the beginning of the 18thC, the hands became bigger and bolder. From c.1790, clock hands were stamped out by machine to create ornate scrolls and curves, 19th and 20thC clock hands are much plainer and the minute hand is closer in size to that of the hour hand.
clockwatch - Any watch which strikes the hour and sometimes quarter hours automatically as the hands go round.
cloisonne - See enamelling.
close helmet - Helmet protecting head and neck dating from the 15thC.
close stool - Lidded stool which conceals a pewter or earthenware chamber pot or similar vessel beneath the seat. The alternative terms of night and necessary stools were replaced in the 19thC by what the Victorians called a night commode.
Close-plating - The method of coating iron or other base metals with a film of silver that preceded sheffield plate. It was used from early times - for plating knife handles, for example -and in the 18thC for small objects such as buttons and buckles. The objects were dipped in molten tin; silver foil was pressed over the surface, and the metals fused with a hot soldering iron.
cloth of gold - See brocade.
club foot - See feet.
Clutha glass - art glass developed by J. Couper & Sons of Glasgow c. 1885, and mostly designed by Christopher dresser. Its name is thought to come from the Gaelic word for the River Clyde. It is usually green, yellow or amber (occasionally turquoise or black), with numerous air bubbles, irregular cloudy streaks and flecks of AVENTURINE.
Cluthra glass - Cloudy, bubbly art glass developed in the USA by the British designer Frederick carder. The effect was created by adding saltpetre (potassium nitrate) to the molten glass; the chemical reacts with the heat to form the large, random bubbles. Cluthra glass is cased with an outer layer of heavy, clear glass.
coach pot - See bourdalou.
coach watch - Large, portable timepiece in the form of a 4-6 in (10-15 cm) diameter pocket watch. Such watches, often with an elaborately decorated case, were used in coaches during the 18thC. Many have hour or hour and quarter-hour striking mechanisms. See also CLOCKWATCH, SEDAN WATCH
coaching clock - See tavern clock.
Coade stone - Clay-based artificial stone invented by Mrs Eleanor Coade at her London factory c. 1769. It resembles natural limestone, but is more durable. Coade stone was much used for garden statuary until the mid-19thC.
coal-tar dyes - See aniline dyes.
Coalbrookdale 1 - Shropshire iron foundry established 1708, which produced decorative and utilitarian cast iron ranging from ornamental vases to stoves and seats. 2 See coalport.
Coalport - Porcelain factory established on the banks of the River Severn in Shropshire, 1795, which absorbed the nearby caughley factory four years later. A form of bone china was produced at Coalport from 1798 but only achieved the soft white translucency and smooth surface for which the ware is now celebrated after 1810. A hard, clear, and highly lustrous lead glaze, introduced 1820, further improved quality and enhanced the bright enamel colours used. A maroon ground, introduced the following year, became one of Coalport's trademarks. Until this time, output had concentrated on simply decorated tableware, although there were Oriental-style designs too, including the willow pattern, and the much imitated Indian tree pattern which was first used at Coalport. From the 1820s, however, decoration became more opulent and lavishly gilded. The next decade saw an increase in range and even more elaborate designs. Masses of finely modelled, flower-encrusted vases, candlesticks, baskets, clock cases and jugs were made up to 1840. Up to 1815, pieces were marked (if at all) 'Coalbrookdale', 'CD'or 'C. Dale' after the neighbouring town. Ornamental vases made in the 1890s often incorporate small landscape panels (signed by the artist) within jewelled line borders. These cabinet pieces competed strongly against worcester and derby porcelain of the same period.
coaster - Circular stand, usually of silver, sheffield plate and/or wood, within a raised rim or gallery, for port or other wine bottles or glasses. Coasters were used in Britain from the 1760s. The name is derived from the after-dinner custom of rolling back the tablecloth and coasting, or sliding, the port from person to person on a smooth-bottomed stand. Double coasters on wheels are known as wine trolleys.
cock beading - Prominent wooden bead moulding commonly used to edge British walnut and mahogany drawer-fronts, c.1730-1800.
coffee can - Cylindrical porcelain coffee cup, about 2Ω in (60 mm) wide and high. Larger versions are called breakfast cans.
coffee pot - Covered vessel, generally of silver or ceramic, for serving coffee, used in Britain since the mid- 17thC, when coffee was first imported. The spout is normally directly opposite the handle, although sometimes at right angles to it, and is higher on the body than would be the case on a teapot, to avoid the coffee sediment escaping.
coffered - Panelled construction in which the panels are thinner than the depth of the frame work. See joining.
coin glass - Drinking glass or jug with one or more coins enclosed in the knop or foot. Although examples exist from the early 18thC, the date on the coin rarely signifies the year the glass itself was manufactured. Such pieces were made to commemorate special occasions like a coronation.
cold painting - Decoration, also known as cold pigments, on ceramics painted in oil or lacquer-based colours that, unlike enamels, are not fused onto the surface by firing. Even when coated with varnish, the colours are prone to flaking and wear. Cold pigments were used on some Meissen red stoneware and Berlin faience, but few examples survive. See also HIGH-TEMPERATURE COLOURS.
Cole, Sir Henry - (1808-82) British designer of ceramics and household objects, who designed an award-winning tea service for minton, 1846, under the pseudonym Felix Summerly. His firm, Summerly's Art Manufacturers, operated 1847-50 designing household wares, with an emphasis on good industrial design. Cole also assisted in the organisation of the Great Exhibition, held in London in 1851.
collar - Ring applied to the stem of a wine glass to disguise a join, used when a glass was made in separate pieces and fused together. It is frequently seen where a bowl or foot joins a stem, but may also be seen around large knops.
column - Vertical support, circular in cross-section. In their pioneering orders of architecture (see box opposite), the ancient Greeks introduced three distinct styles -Doric, Ionic and Corinthian - and the Romans later added the Tuscan and Composite orders. All of these orders are seen reproduced in furniture, furnishings and decorative objects. See also pediment.
combed decoration - 1.A decorative effect on ceramics achieved by scratching or incising the clay while still moist with a comb-like instrument. The incised areas are flooded with a translucent glaze. This technique is seen particularly on Chinese celadon wares of the northern song dynasty. 2 Pattern on ceramics achieved by coating the body with a liquid clay slip and creating either wavy or zigzagged lines or a feathered effect with a metal brush or comb. The technique was developed by John dwight, John astbury and Thomas whieldon, and is commonly found on 17th and 18thC Staffordshire slipware. 3 A glass-making technique in which threads of opaque glass are applied to the body, flattened into the still-molten surface by marvering, and then combed to create a feathered icing effect
comfit box - See bonbonniere.
commedia dell'arte - Italian comic theatre genre featuring characters such as Punchinello (or Punch), Harlequin and Columbine. It developed in the 16thC but was a source of inspiration in every area of the decorative arts during the 18thC. See meissen.
commemoratives - objects inscribed or decorated to commemorate an event or a person.
commode - In the late 17th and early 18th centuries, the French name for a low chest of drawers. The word gradually came to describe any low cupboard or chest which was of a decorative French pattern.
Compagnie des Arts Francais - See sue & mare.
compass card - Freely rotating circular card in a navigational or surveying compass that is marked with the points of the compass. It has a compass needle mounted beneath so that it swings to point to magnetic north.
compendium - This is a shallow, ornate box for holding writing materials when travelling, which opens out to provide a writing surface. 2 A multifuctional or combination scientific or navigational instrument, such as a portable sundial combined with a wind vane.
complication - A watchmaker's term for pocket watches that not only tell the time, but incorporate extra features such as automatically changing calendars, stopwatch or repeater mechanisms.
comport - Ornamental glass or ceramic stand dating from the 18thC, with a shallow dished top and sturdy stem. They are 5-18 in (12.5-46 cm) tall, and were designed to hold sweetmeats, fruit, cakes or bread. See tazza.
composition - Plaster-like material made from whiting (chalk), resin and size or glue, and used to make relief mouldings on furniture. Compo can be pressed into moulds when wet, and is hard enough to be carved when dry. It was widely used in Britain in the second half of the 18thC. A version of compo based on wood-pulp materials mixed with ingredients such as eggs, crushed bones or bread was used for dolls' bodies c. 1820-1940. Carton is a cheap form of this used for dolls' bodies in the 1920s and 30s.
Comyns, William - Founder of a London silversmiths which produces hand-made dressing-table services, photograph frames and other items from 1848.
concertina action - The folding frame of a type of card table popular in the mid-18thC. The hinged sides straighten as the back legs are pulled out, and fold back concertina fashion.
confidante - Double or triple-seated chair set in a curving S-shaped framework, designed so that two or more people can converse more easily than if they were sitting side by side. A mechanical version with swivelling seats is known as a sociable seat. Confidantes were popular in Victorian and Edwardian times.
console table - Type of side table supported by one or more legs at the front, and fixed to the wall with brackets at the back.
conversation seat - See borne.
Cookworthy, William - (1705-80) The first producer of true porcelain in Britain. The discovery of china clay and china rock deposits in Cornwall led to Cookworthy's successful formula in 1768 at his plymouth factory. Cookworthy was probably also involved in the development of soft-paste porcelain incorporating soapstone used at bristol and worcester.
Cooper, Susie - (1903-1995) British pottery designer and painter. She studied at the Burslem School of Art in Staffordshire and set up her own company in 1929. Her designs are Modernist but appealed to a wide but fashion-conscious market. In 1966 Cooper became senior designer at the wedgwood factory.
Copeland - See spode.
Copenhagen - Porcelain figures were produced from c. 1780. The company declined in the early 19thC but revived when it was taken over by the Alumina Faience Manufactory in 1882. Architect Arnold Krog, appointed artistic director in 1885, introduced a revolutionary new glazing technique which washed the whole of a piece of porcelain with colour as opposed to the previous style of painting small areas, and the earlier formal style of figure-modelling was replaced by more naturalistic forms. In the early 20thC came art Nouveau-style designs, and from the 1920s stoneware models with glazes that were Chinese-inspired
Coper, Hans - (1920-81) German studio potter who settled in Britain in 1939 and shared a studio with fellow potter Lucie rie. Coper identified strongly with the Modern movement, producing roughly textured sculptural pieces.
Copland, - Henry (1720-53) Engraver and designer of the early Georgian period. Copland was an early exponent of the Rococo style in England as seen in A New Book of Ornaments, a much-copied pattern book he compiled with Matthias lock, published 1752. He and Lock worked together on several other publications, including Thomas chippendale's The Gentleman and Cabinet Maker s Director.
copper - Comparatively soft, reddish metal which is used both in its own right and as an alloy in bronze, brass, fine pewter and pinchbeck. It is also used to impart strength to silver and gold. Gilded copper was a substitute for gold in the Middle Ages in domestic and church pieces. From c. 1742, copper was fused with silver to make sheffield plate. Pure copper can be coated with tin to prevent corrosion
coquillage - Shell ornamentation found in Rococo-style designs.
coral - A hard, organic substance, formed from the skeletons of marine polyps and used for personal adornment since Egyptian times. The variety chosen for jewellery is solid, without visible indentations, and varies in colour from pinkish-white to red. Coral jewellery became popular in Britain in the mid- 19thC when it was imported from Naples and Genoa.
Coralene - Trade name for a type of glass decoration developed in the USA. Coral-like forms were painted on glass in enamel and small glass beads were fused onto them. The technique was used for both figurative and natural designs, and was also popular in Britain and Europe.
cordial glass - Small-bowled drinking glass with a long, thickish stem and 1-1Ω fl oz (30-40 ml) capacity. It was used for drinking cordials - potent, concentrated tipples taken after tea -in the 18thC, and is also known as a liqueur glass.
cordonnet - See lace.
core - Shape made of clay or mud and straw around which glass was moulded. The technique, dating from 1500 bc, died out when blowing was introduced but was revived in the late 19thC for making mosaic glass.
cornelian - A red variety of the quartz gemstone chalcedony, which is used in jewellery, especially in signet rings and beads, and for seals. The gems range from medium, slightly cloudy red to clear, deep red.
corner chair - Chair introduced in the early 18thC with a single front leg, and low back and top rail. This type of chair is also known as an angle or writing chair.
corner cupboard - is normally enclosed by doors with shelves above.
cornice - The decorative projection or moulding above a frieze in architecture or topping a piece of furniture such as a bookcase, cabinet or the tester of a bedstead.
Corning Glassworks - Major US glass factory founded 1868 and still in operation. It developed the heat-resistant glass known as Pyrex (1908). In 1918 the company acquired the steuben glassworks, renowned for its art glass, and the British designer Frederick carder became director of the whole operation.
coromandel - See ebony. corridor carpet See runners
corundum - The most prestigious sapphires, ranging in colour from clear cornflower to deep blue are the 'Kashmir blue' sapphires, imported to Europe from India since 1862.Corundums can be artificially produced, but under a microscope reveal curved striation and gas bubbles which do not occur in the natural stone.
costrel - See pilgrim bottle.
costume jewellery - Articles of jewellery made from base metals, pinchbeck or silver and set with imitation gems, such as paste. Some quality examples are made for leading couturiers, such as Chanel and Christian Dior.
cosy corner - An upholstered and cushioned seat made to fit the corner of a room, popular in Britain in the late 19thC. The term was also applied to a comfortably furnished corner.
Cotswold school - English late 19th to early 20thC furniture-designer and craftsman's association in the Gloucestershire Cotswolds. It was set up in 1894 by Sydney and Ernest Barnsley and Ernest gimson, who were also connected with the arts and crafts movement. The designs made use of traditional methods and untreated English woods. Dutch cabinet-maker Peter Waals was one of the foremost designers.
cottage clock Small, - inexpensive wood mantel clock produced in Britain in the 19thC. The clocks are fitted with a watch movement which goes for only one day after each winding. Cottage clocks, like sedan clocks, provided a means of recycling iSthC pocket-watch movements as these were too fat for the slim-cased pocket watches of the time.
couch - A 17thC development of the day bed with a long, upholstered seat and a back and headrest at one end. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, the term became more or less synonymous with settee.
couched work - Embroidery in which a thread is laid along the fabric and then held in place by over-stitching.
counter box - Small, circular container made of silver, wood or ivory, used for storing gaming counters. They date from the 17thC. Fine silver examples contain thin, silver counters; others contain ones made of iron or mother-of-pearl.
countermark - A mark, also known as a counterstamp, struck onto an existing coin or the cut part of a coin some time after it was initially struck. An ancient practice, still in use today, carried out usually as an emergency measure to revalue the currency or to validate a foreign piece for use in another country. countermark of George III on a 1785 Spanish-American 8 reales piece circulated in Britain, January-June 1804.
country furniture - General term for furniture made by provincial craftsmen using local and indigenous woods such as oak, elm, ash and fruitwoods. Durability and function were of greater importance than aesthetic design and comfort. Country furniture is typically individual in design.
court cupboard - A cupboard, the forerunner of the sideboard, dating from the 16thC. It consists of two open shelves, sometimes with a small central cupboard in the upper tier. Court cupboards were popular again in the gothic revival of the early 19thC.
court sword - See dress sword.
Courtauld II, Augustine - (c. 1685-1751) The most prolific and probably most skilled member of the Courtauld family of silversmiths. He was of French extraction but based in London, producing conservative and plain queen ANNE-style domestic silverware. His son Samuel Courtauld I (1720-65) made elaborate Rococo-style wares, and following his death, his wife Louisa continued the business in partnership with George Cowles (1768-78).
courting chair - See love seat.
cow creamer - Cream jug of silver or ceramics in the form of a cow, particularly popular in the second half of the 18thC.
Cowles, George - See courtauld, Augustine.
cracked ice - Chinese porcelain ground in varying intensities of blue, irregularly crossed with dark lines to create a cracked-ice effect. It was introduced in the 17thC, and little copied in Europe, apart from some rare examples in Bristol delftware and worcester porcelain.
crackle - A network of fine lines on a ceramics glaze caused when the rates of contraction of body and glaze are sufficiently different to cause a tension between the two. The effect can be deliberately produced to create a matrix of hairline cracks. These are sometimes enhanced with an iron-oxide stain, a technique perfected in song dynasty wares. Over time, perhaps centuries after a piece was fired, the tension between body and glaze coupled with, for example, a change in temperature, may result in a fine network of cracks known as crazing.
crackled glass - See ice glass.
cranberry glass - Cheap, pinkish-red glass developed in Britain during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It became popular in Britain and the USA for drinking glasses and later for bowls and vases with trailed or enamel decoration.
crazing - See crackle.
cream pail - See piggin.
cream ware - A refined, cream-coloured, lead-glazed earthenware which ousted delftware from its dominant position and threatened many continental porcelain manufacturers, including meissen. Cream ware was lightweight, durable and inexpensive. It represented a key British contribution to ceramics development and was exported and copied throughout Europe. The creamware paste incorporates white Devon clay and ground burnt flints, and can be fired to a slightly higher temperature and level of vitrification than ordinary earthenware. It was developed in Staffordshire potteries c. 1740 and was improved by Josiah wedgwood who marketed it as Queen's Ware in 1765. At first, small motifs were added as decoration, but later examples were enamelled or transfer-printed. Colour could be introduced during glazing - as in Wedgwood's cauliflower ware - and powdered metallic oxides were sometimes dusted on before firing for different finishes. Around 1780, to compete with chinese export porcelain, the basic yellowish creamware glaze was replaced by a bluish one, which came to be known as pearlware, although the paste itself remained the same. Pearlware continued into the igthC and was ideal for blue-printed designs as produced by spode and davenport.
credence table - Small table often designed to fit into a niche, and used in church in the 19thC for placing the Sacrament vessels on. The name now also refers to late 16th and early 17thC tables with a hinged top which, when closed, have a semicircular or three-sided surface.
credenza - Italian word for a sideboard now often used to describe a type of low Victorian cabinet, sometimes with rounded ends and glazed or solid panel doors.
Creil - A factory whose name has become synonymous with transfer-printed earthenware in France, although subsequently much was made elsewhere. Creil was founded in 1795, and became the first French pottery to produce creamware to imitate and compete with the mass of inexpensive tablewares exported from British factories such as wedgwood. Designs, transfer-printed in black, sepia or reddish-brown are of buildings, people, landscapes, hunting scenes and, in the late 19thC, of satirical subjects. Creil twice joined forces-1818-25 and 1840-95 - with the nearby creamware factory at Montereau, and although Creil closed in 1895, Montereau continued using its name until 1955.
crested ware - Ceramic ornaments bearing the crests or arms of the town in which they were to be sold, generally as souvenirs. The Staffordshire potter William Goss popularised crested ware in the late 19thC
cresting - Carved or moulded ornament on the top rail of a chair, or at the top of a cabinet or mirror frame.
cretonne - Strong, plain-weave material with a slightly ridged appearance, named after Creton, Normandy, where it was first made. It rivalled chintz as an upholstery fabric in the late 19thC and was also popular in the 1920s and 30s.
crewel-work - Embroidery worked with a fine, loosely twisted woollen (or worsted) yarn on a canvas or linen background.